# Secondary Student Profiles of Learning

#### 7th Grade English

## Seventh Grade Students

- take notes during oral presentations.
- organize and summarize spoken messages.
- present oral presentations with peer/self evaluations.
- use rubrics and graphic organizers to assess how language, medium, and presentation contribute to meaning.
- evaluate techniques that various media use to influence and inform.
- differentiate between multiple meanings of words and distinguish between denotative and connotative meanings of words.
- use word origins, prefixes, and roots as an aid to understand word meanings.
- use study strategies, such as graphic organizers or mnemonic devices, to learn and recall important ideas.
- analyze characters, plot, and setting in narrative and expository texts.
- recognize literary devices, such as flashback, foreshadowing, and symbolism, and their effect on text meaning.
- recognize how style, tone, and mood contribute to the text meaning.
- use complex sentence structure to vary text.
- use active voice and tense consistency in writing.
- use complex punctuation correctly in writing.
- use multiple texts to complete research reports and projects.
- paraphrase and summarize text to recall, inform, or organize ideas.
- read classic and contemporary literary selections and informational texts.
- produce final, error-free pieces of written composition based on conventions of written language.

#### 7th Grade Math

## The student will:

- Compare and order integers and positive rational numbers (fractions, decimals, percents).
- Convert between fractions, decimals, whole numbers, and percents.
- Solve word problems using all four operations involving fractions and decimals.
- Use models to add, subtract, multiply, and divide integers and connect the actions to algorithms.
- Use division to find unit rates and ratios in proportional relationships.
- Represent squares and square roots using geometric models.
- Simplify numerical expressions using order of operations and exponents.
- Estimate and find solutions to word problems involving percent and proportional relationships.
- Generate formulas and graph data to represent situations involving conversions, perimeter, area, circumference, volume, and scaling.
- Describe the relationship between the terms in a sequence and their position.
- Use concrete models to solve equations and use symbols to record the action.
- Classify angles as complementary or supplementary.
- Use properties to classify shapes and solids and to define similarity.
- Locate and name points on a coordinate plane using ordered pairs of integers.
- Graph translations on a coordinate plane.
- Sketch a solid when given the top, front, and side views.
- Make a net of the surface area of a solid.
- Solve word problems involving geometric properties and concepts.
- Estimate measurements and solve word problems involving length, perimeter, circumference, area, and volume.
- Construct sample spaces for compound events (dependent and independent).
- Select and use an appropriate representation for presenting data.
- Analyze and make inferences based on collected and represented data.
- Describe a set of data using mean, median, mode, and range.
- Use tools such as real objects, manipulatives, and technology to solve problems.
- Communicate about mathematics using informal language, objects, words, pictures, numbers, and technology.
- Use logical reasoning to make sense of his or her world and justify why an answer is reasonable.
- Make generalizations from patterns or sets of examples and non-examples.

#### 7th Grade Pre-AP Math

## The student will:

- Compare and order rational numbers in various forms (integers, percents, positive and negative fractions and decimals).
- Use rational numbers to solve word problems involving proportional relationships.
- Approximate the value of irrational numbers (pi, square root) in word problems.
- Express numbers in scientific notation, including negative exponents.
- Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers in word problems.
- Use order of operations to solve multi-step word problems.
- Evaluate a solution for reasonableness using estimation and number sense.
- Use multiplication by a constant factor to represent proportional relationships.
- Compare and contrast proportional and non-proportional relationships.
- Estimate and find solutions to application and word problems involving percents and proportional relationships, such as similarity and rates.
- Generate a different representation given one representation of data.
- Estimate, find, and justify solutions to application problems using tables, graphs, and algebraic expressions.
- Use an algebraic expression to find any term in a sequence.
- Generate similar shapes using dilations (enlargements and reductions).
- Use proportional relationships in similar shapes to find missing measurements.
- Graph dilations, reflections, and translations on a coordinate plane.
- Draw solids from different perspectives.
- Solve real-world and word problems using geometric concepts and properties.
- Use picture or models to demonstrate and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.
- Locate and name points on a coordinate plane using ordered pairs of rational numbers.
- Find surface area of prisms and cylinders using concrete models and nets.
- Find volume of solids and understand the relationships between solids when dimensions are proportional.
- Solve word problems and application problems involving surface area and volume.
- Describe the effects on perimeter, volume, and area when dimensions are changed proportionally.
- Find the probability of compound events (dependent and independent).
- Use theoretical and experimental probabilities to make predictions and decisions.
- Select the appropriate measure of central tendency to describe a set of data for particular purpose (mean, median, mode, range).
- Analyze trends in scatter plots and construct circle graphs, bar graphs, and histograms – with and without technology.
- Evaluate methods of sampling to determine validity of an inference made from a set of data.
- Recognize misuses of graphical or numerical information and evaluate predictions and conclusions based on data analysis.
- Use tools such as real objects, manipulatives, and technology to solve problems.
- Communicate about mathematics using informal language, objects, words, pictures, numbers, and technology.
- Use logical reasoning to make sense of his or her world and justify why an answer is reasonable.
- Make generalizations from patterns or sets of examples and non-examples.

#### 7th Grade Science

## 7th Grade Students:

- Collect and analyze information to recognize patterns such as rates of change.
- Analyze effects of regional erosional deposition and weathering.
- Identify gravity and phases of the moon as components of the solar system and explore the effects of events such as hurricanes on the Earth.
- Identify and illustrate how the tilt of the Earth on its axis causes seasons and length of a day.
- Draw conclusions about the effects of human activity on Earth's renewable, non-renewable, and inexhaustible resources.
- Use pulleys and levers to understand the relationship between force and motion.
- Recognize that compounds are composed of elements.
- Identify and demonstrate everyday examples of chemical phenomena such as rusting, tarnishing of metal or burning of wood as examples of chemical processes, and by identifying physical properties used to place elements on the periodic table.
- Illustrate examples of kinetic and potential energy in every day life such as objects at rest, movement of geologic faults, and falling water.
- Identify photosynthesis as an example of the transformation of radiant energy from the Sun into chemical energy for use by plants.
- Explain and describe the role of ecological succession in ecosystems.
- Identify how organisms maintain stable internal conditions while living in changing external environments.
- Identify the systems of the human body and identify their structures and functions.
- Analyze changes in organisms such as fever or vomiting resulting from internal stimuli. Identify responses to external stimuli found in the environment such as the presence of absence of light.
- Compare asexual and sexual reproduction to illustrate those genetic materials is responsible for both dominant and recessive traits in organisms.
- Identify how sexual reproduction produces more diverse offspring and asexual reproduction results in more uniform offspring.
- Distinguish between dominant and recessive traits.
- Connect Grade 7 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.
- Recognize models of objects and events as tools for understanding the natural world. Models can show how systems work, and students must also understand the limitations of the model.

## Scientific Processes:

## Scientific Concepts:

#### 7th Grade Texas History

## Seventh Grade students:

- Examine the full scope of Texas history, including the cultures of Native Americans living in Texas prior to European exploration and the eras of mission building, colonization, revolution, republic, and statehood.
- Focus in each era in history from early times to present on key individuals, events, and issues and their impact on the state of Texas.
- Identify regions of Texas and the distribution of population within and among the regions and explain the factors that caused Texas to change from an agrarian to an urban society.
- Describe the structure and functions of municipal, county, and state governments.
- Explain the influence of the U.S. Constitution on the Texas Constitution, and examine the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens.
- Use primary and secondary sources to examine the rich and diverse cultural background of Texas as they identify the different racial and ethnic groups that settled in Texas to build a republic and then a state.
- Analyze the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as barbed wire and the oil and gas industries on the development of Texas.
- Use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies and autobiographies; novels; speeches, letters, and diaries; and poetry, songs, and artworks to learn from and express themselves.
- Draw connections between the history of Texas and the United States making comparisons of geography, revolutions, constitutions and government.

#### 8th Grade English

## Eighth Grade Students

- take notes during oral presentations.
- organize and summarize spoken messages.
- present oral presentations with peer/self evaluations.
- use rubrics and graphic organizers to assess how language, medium, and presentation contribute to meaning.
- evaluate techniques that various media use to influence and inform.
- differentiate between multiple meanings of words.
- distinguish between denotative and connotative meanings of words.
- use word origins, prefixes, and suffixes as an aid to understand word meanings.
- use study strategies, such as graphic organizers or mnemonic devices to learn and recall important ideas.
- analyze characters, plot, and setting in narrative and expository texts.
- recognize literary devices, such as flashback, foreshadowing, and symbolism, and their effect on text meaning.
- recognize how style, tone, and mood contribute to the text meaning.
- use complex sentence structure to vary text.
- use active voice and tense consistency in writing.
- use complex punctuation correctly in writing.
- use multiple texts to complete research reports and projects.
- paraphrase and summarize text to recall, inform, or organize ideas.
- read classic and contemporary literary selections and informational text.
- produce final, error-free pieces of written composition based on conventions of written language.

#### 8th Grade Math

## The student will:

- Compare and order rational numbers in various forms (integers, percents, positive and negative fractions and decimals).
- Use rational numbers to solve word problems involving proportional relationships.
- Approximate the value of irrational numbers (pi, square root) in word problems.
- Express numbers in scientific notation, including negative exponents.
- Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers in word problems.
- Use order of operations to solve multi-step word problems.
- Evaluate a solution for reasonableness using estimation and number sense.
- Use multiplication by a constant factor to represent proportional relationships.
- Compare and contrast proportional and non-proportional relationships.
- Estimate and find solutions to application and word problems involving percents and proportional relationships, such as similarity and rates.
- Generate a different representation given one representation of data.
- Estimate, find, and justify solutions to application problems using tables, graphs, and algebraic expressions.
- Use an algebraic expression to find any term in a sequence.
- Generate similar shapes using dilations (enlargements and reductions).
- Use proportional relationships in similar shapes to find missing measurements.
- Graph dilations, reflections, and translations on a coordinate plane.
- Draw solids from different perspectives.
- Solve real-world and word problems using geometric concepts and properties.
- Use picture or models to demonstrate and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.
- Locate and name points on a coordinate plane using ordered pairs of rational numbers.
- · Find surface area of prisms and cylinders using concrete models and nets.
- Find volume of solids and understand the relationships between solids when dimensions are proportional.
- Solve word problems and application problems involving surface area and volume.
- Describe the effects on perimeter, volume, and area when dimensions are changed proportionally.
- Find the probability of compound events (dependent and independent).
- Use theoretical and experimental probabilities to make predictions and decisions.
- Select the appropriate measure of central tendency to describe a set of data for particular purpose (mean, median, mode, range).
- Analyze trends in scatter plots and construct circle graphs, bar graphs, and histograms – with and without technology.
- Evaluate methods of sampling to determine validity of an inference made from a set of data.
- Recognize misuses of graphical or numerical information and evaluate predictions and conclusions based on data analysis.
- Use tools such as real objects, manipulatives, and technology to solve problems.
- Communicate about mathematics using informal language, objects, words, pictures, numbers, and technology.
- Use logical reasoning to make sense of his or her world and justify why an answer is reasonable.
- Make generalizations from patterns or sets of examples and non-examples.

#### 8th Grade Science

## 8th Grade Students:

- Extrapolate from collected information to make predictions.
- Evaluate models and make recommendations for improving the model.
- Demonstrate how unbalanced forces cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion.
- Identify the origin of waves and investigate their ability to travel through different media.
- Describe characteristics of stars and galaxies, identify light years as a way to describe distance, and learn about scientific theories of the origin of the universe.
- Learn about lunar cycles and the rock cycle.
- Identify the roles of both human activities and natural events in altering Earth systems.
- Predict the results of modifying Earth's nitrogen, water, and carbon-oxygen cycles.
- Explore interactions in matter and energy for solar, weather, and ocean systems (ex. specific heat). Relate the role of the oceans to climatic changes.
- Examine information on the periodic table to recognize that elements are grouped into families.
- Identify that physical and chemical properties influence the development and application of everyday materials such as cooking surfaces, insulation, adhesives, and plastics.
- Identify and demonstrate the loss or gain of heat energy during exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions.
- Describe interactions and identify feedback mechanisms among systems that maintain equilibrium such as body temperature, turgor pressure, and chemical reactions.
- Identify that change in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individuals and of species.
- Distinguish between inherited traits and other characteristics that result from interactions with the environment.
- Identify and make predictions about possible outcomes of various genetic combinations of inherited characteristics.
- Connect Grade 8 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

## Scientific Processes:

## Scientific Concepts:

#### 8th Grade US History

## Eighth Grade students:

- Focuses on the political, economic, and social events and issues related to the colonial and revolutionary eras, the creation and ratification of the U.S. Constitution, challenges of the early Republic, westward expansion, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction.
- Describe the physical characteristics of the United States and their impact on population distribution and settlement patterns in the past and present.
- Analyze the various economic factors that influenced the development of colonial America and the early years of the Republic.
- Identify the origins of the free enterprise system.
- Examine the American beliefs and principles, including limited government, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, and individual rights reflected in the U.S. Constitution and other historical documents.
- Evaluate the impact of major Supreme Court cases.
- Evaluate major reform movements of the 19th century.
- Examine the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States as well as the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society.
- Evaluate the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of the United States.
- Use critical-thinking skills, including identifying bias in written, oral, and visual material.
- · Use a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as the complete text of the U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence; landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court; biographies and autobiographies; novels; speeches, letters, and diaries; and poetry, songs, and artworks to learn from and express themselves.

#### Algebra I

## The student will:

- Understand that a function represents a dependence of one quantity on another.
- Understand that a function can be described in a variety of ways.
- Gather and record data, or use data sets, to determine functional relationships between quantities.
- Write equations or inequalities to answer questions arising from functional situations.
- Represent relationships among quantities using concrete models, tables, graphs, diagrams, verbal descriptions, equations, and inequalities.
- Use the properties and attributes of functions.
- Identify and sketch the general forms of linear and quadratic parent functions.
- Identify the mathematical domains and ranges and their reasonableness for situations.
- Interpret situations in terms of graphs.
- Make and interpret scatterplots and models for data to predict and make critical judgments.
- Use symbols to represent unknowns and variables.
- Look for patterns in given situations and express these algebraically.
- Find specific function values, simplify polynomial expressions, transform and solve equations, and factor as necessary for problem situations.
- Translate among and use algebraic, tabular, graphical, or verbal descriptions of linear functions.
- Develop the concept of slope as rate of change and determine slope from various situations.
- Interpret the meaning of slope and intercepts in situations.
- Describe the effects of changes in parameters of linear functions in real-world and mathematical situations (such as intercept changes, slope changes).
- Graph and write equation of lines given characteristics, such as two points, a point and a slope, or a slope and y-intercept.
- Determine the intercepts of linear functions from graphs, tables, and algebraic representations.
- Relate direct variation to linear function and solve problems involving proportional change.
- Formulate equations and inequalities based on linear functions, uses a variety of methods to solve them, and analyze the solution for reasonableness in terms of the situation.
- Formulate systems of linear equations from problem situations, use a variety of methods to solve them, and analyze the solutions in terms of the situation.
- Solve equations, inequalities, and systems of equations using concrete models, graphs, tables, and algebraic methods.
- Determine the domain and range values for which quadratic functions make sense.
- Investigate, describe, and predict the effects of changes on the slope and intercepts of graphs of quadratic equations.
- Solve quadratic equations using concrete models, tables, graphs, and algebraic methods.
- Relate the solutions of quadratic equations to the roots of their functions.
- Use patterns to generate the laws of exponents and apply them in problem-solving situations.
- Analyze data and represent situations involving inverse variation using concrete models, tables, graphs, or algebraic methods.
- Analyze data and represent situations involving exponential growth and decay using concrete models, tables, graphs, or algebraic methods.
- Use tools such as real objects, manipulatives, and technology to solve problems.
- Use logical reasoning to make sense of his or her world and justify why an answer is reasonable.
- Make generalizations from patterns or sets of examples and non-examples.

#### Biology

## Biology Students:

- Compare structures and functions of different biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
- Identify and investigate the effects of enzymes on food molecules.
- Identify structures and functions of cells and viruses.
- Investigate and identify cell processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, and synthesis of new molecules.
- Sequence levels of cellular organization: cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.
- Analyze growth, development, and reproduction of organisms.
- Know the structure and function of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics.
- Identify evidence of change in species using fossils, DNA sequences, physiological similarities, and embryology.
- Illustrate results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction.
- Know the applications of taxonomy and characteristics of kingdoms.
- Analyze and identify characteristics of plant systems and subsystems.
- Interpret functions of body systems in organisms and identify cell specialization (structure and function) in epithelia, muscles, and bones.
- Interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalisms, and mutualism.
- Identify and describe the role of bacteria in health, causing disease, maintaining equilibrium, and causing decay of biomass.
- Describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts.
- Identify and describe homeostatic mechanisms, how humans respond to external stimuli, and the importance of nutrition and exercise on health.
- Understand energy flow in photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
- Recognize importance of plants to the environment, in addition to identifying cell specialization of roots, stems and leaves.
- Evaluate models in representing biological objects and events.
- Research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.
- Describe the connection between biology and future careers.

## Scientific Processes:

## Scientific Concepts:

#### Chemistry

All students in high school science courses conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during inquiry investigations, and make informed decisions using critical-thinking and scientific problem-solving. All High School Science Courses include a 40% laboratory and field requirement.

During the spring semester, 10th and 11th Grade students will a take a state assessment examination called the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Test, which provides a snapshot of students’ understanding of the Science TEKS from IPC and Biology.

Students will investigate how chemistry is an integral part of their daily lives.

### Chemistry Students:

- Identify common elements and compounds using scientific nomenclature.
- Express and manipulate chemical quantities using dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures.
- Collect data and make measurements with precision.
- Differentiate between chemical and physical properties of matter, learn how to use a periodic chart, and predict chemical behavior.
- Analyze examples of solids, liquids, and gases to determine their compressibility, structure, motion of particles, shape, and volume.
- Investigate and identify properties of mixtures and pure substances.
- Explain and balance chemical and nuclear equations using number of atoms, masses, and charge.
- Understand changes in matter and energy transformations during physical and chemical changes by measuring the effects of the gain or loss of heat on the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
- Verify the law of conservation of energy by evaluating energy exchange.
- Relate the rate of a chemical reaction to temperature, concentration, surface area, and presence of a catalyst.
- Understand that atomic structure is determined by nuclear composition, allowable electron cloud, and subatomic particles.
- Compare and contrast nuclear fission and fusion, their effects, uses, and disposal.
- Describe interrelationships among temperature, particle number, pressure, and volume of gases in a closed system (gas laws).
- Identify and investigate types ionic and covalent bonding, and the influence of intermolecular forces in covalent compounds.
- Analyze properties of solutions and the factors that influence the solubility of solutes in a solvent.
- Know the relationships among concentration, electrical conductivity, and colligative properties of a solution.
- Identify, demonstrate, and analyze properties of acids and bases and their effects on an ecological system.
- Identify common oxidation-reduction reaction processes (ex. rusting).
- Research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.
- Describe the connection between chemistry and future careers.

### Scientific Processes:

The first three Chemistry TEKS are processes essential for scientific investigation: safety in the classroom, 40% instructional time on field and laboratory experiences, scientific methods, ethical practices, and critical thinking.

### Scientific Concepts:

The remaining twelve TEKS are comprised of scientific concepts from two major strands that vertically align and build the basis for science literacy. The major strands include Integrated Physics and Chemistry (IPC) and Biology.